19 Jan Methods for making cement
Cement is a building material that is not a natural resource. For its manufacture, you need to spend a lot of money and physical resources. But all the difficulties in manufacturing justify themselves, because cement is the most popular material used in construction. Most often, cement manufacturing plants are built in places where raw materials are extracted, which are used to manufacture cement.
The production of cement consists of two stages. The first stage includes the manufacture of clinker. The second stage includes the manufacture of powder from clinker, to which gypsum and some additives are added. The largest cash costs go to the first stage of production. It accounts for about seventy percent of the cost of cement, because this stage includes the extraction of raw materials. In order to extract limestone, it is necessary to make a small collapse of the mountain. Limestone is located at a depth of up to ten meters, four rows of limestone are found in this thickness. Each of the layers reaches seventy centimeters. Having collected this raw material, it is transported for grinding – pieces with a diameter of ten cm are obtained. After the raw material must be dried. When the limestone dries, it is again sent for grinding, while being mixed with some components. The next step in production is the firing of the resulting homogeneous mass. This is how clinker is made.
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The second stage consists of several steps. Initially, clinker and gypsum must be crushed. Then you need to dry the additives. Then proceed to the grinding of clinker and gypsum, while adding additives. Since raw materials have various characteristics, an individual method of manufacturing for each raw material is developed separately. Cement is made in three different ways.
1) wet method. This method is used in the manufacture of cement made of chalk (this is a carbonate component), iron -containing additives (pyric cores, converter slopes and the like) and clay (silicate component). With this method, chalk should be moistened by 29 percent, and clay by 20 percent. This method received this name due to the fact that the grinding of raw materials is held in water. The result is a sludge that has humidity up to 50 percent. At the next step, the slope goes to the furnace for firing 200 meters long, and the diameter is 7 meters. During firing from the sludge, carbon dioxide is released. After firing from the furnace, get a clinker in the form of balls. These balls are rubbed into powder. This is the cement.
2) Dry method. In this method, the raw material is initially dried and then subjected to grinding. The result is a mixture in the form of a dry powder.
3) Combined way. This method uses a combination of the two previous methods. With this method, cement is produced in two types. In the first form, the raw material is made using the wet method, and then dried to a moisture content of 18 percent and placed in an oven. In the second form, the dry method is initially used, and then watered so that the material has 14 percent moisture. After the raw material is fired.
Each of the cement manufacturing methods uses its own type of equipment. It is also necessary to follow the sequence of operations in the manufacture.
After manufacturing, the cement is packed in paper bags of 50 kilograms. Cement from the plant is sent by trucks, and if there are railway tracks nearby, then by freight trains.
No rack is complete without the use of cement. This proves that cement is a reliable raw material in the construction industry.