Types of septic tanks for a private house

During the construction of a private house, the question arises about the removal of wastewater and where to install a septic tank. The easiest way is, of course, to connect to the central sewer, but what if it is not nearby. Then you can choose one of two options.

The first is the drainage of water into a drainless storage tank (septic tank), for which, as it fills up, a sewage machine will be needed. With the help of it, wastewater is pumped out and removed from the site to the treatment plant. At the same time, it is necessary to provide free access to the location of the septic tank and easy access to its hatch.

The second is to build a local treatment plant on your site, in which polluted water will be filtered. After it, the purified water is discharged into the ground.

When choosing the first method, the cost of funds for construction is minimal, but annual costs are required to ensure the removal of wastewater. In the second case, it’s the other way around.

In domestic wastewater treatment plants, wastewater is cleaned of contaminants in a biological way. In this way, cleaning is carried out at the expense of microorganisms that can decompose contaminants in wastewater. In the process of biological treatment, biochemical reactions take place, during which organic substances and many chemical elements are removed. After such purification, water can simply be drained into the ground without worrying about the safety of the environment.

Septic tanks with biological treatment are of two types. Aerobic tanks – wastewater treatment is carried out thanks to bacteria, with access to oxygen. And anaerobic septic tanks, in which the process of water purification is carried out by the same bacteria, but without access to oxygen. In such treatment plants, there is a filtering drainage in the soil layer.

The first type is difficult to operate and requires a lot of material costs. And the installation of septic tanks in this case is not even an easy task!. This type of septic tank is also called active. It is a high-tech device in which a high-speed wastewater treatment process is carried out. This is due to the artificially created environment for the vital activity of aerobic bacteria. Such a device is powered by the mains, requires a continuous supply of wastewater, eliminates the presence of power outages. An active septic tank can be installed regardless of nearby groundwater on the site; it has small dimensions and is highly tight.

The second type is cheaper, does not require additional costs for arrangement and operation. Here, bacteria create natural conditions for their vital activity.

Based on the information received, it can be determined that an active septic tank for the house is chosen only in the case of a small plot size and if there are free funds.

A septic tank with ground drainage acting as a filter is easy to install and operate, and which is very convenient, it can be done by hand without any problems.

There are two types of filtering. They depend on the depth of the groundwater and the permeability of the soil itself.

If the groundwater is deep and the soil is well watertight, the effluent from the septic tank is sent directly to the ground, where it is filtered and enters the aquifers. In the second case, effluents pass through a filter from bulk soil and then fall onto the terrain. The soil must have good filtering ability. All types of soils are suitable for ground drainage, the only exception is clay or its high content in ordinary soil.

Absorption fields, filtration fields and a filter well can act as a filtering system.

You can decide on the choice of the type of septic tank based on the size of the site, the allocated funds for its construction, the level of groundwater and the composition of the soil itself.

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